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【湘微教育】蒋昌忠: “三全育人”, 新时代高校立德树人的创新实践

2020-01-19 16:04   来源: 湖南教育杂志   作者: 蒋昌忠   点击:

《xijinpingtanzhiguolizheng》(disanjuan)yaboapplideshurendezhongyaolunshushenkehuidalegaoxiaoweisheipeiyangren、peiyangshenmeyangderenyijiruhepeiyangrendengyixilielilunwentiheshijianwenti。xijinpingzongshujizaihunankaochashiyouqiangdiao,yaoquanmianguanchedangdejiaoyufangzhen,luoshilideshurengenbenrenwu,shenhuajiaoyujiaoxuegaige,bashehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguanrongrugejigeleixuexiaokecheng。renzhenluoshixijinpingzongshujilideshurenzhongyaolunshu,quanmiantuidong“sanquanyuren”zonghegaige,bixuyixijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangweizhidao,jinjinweiraolideshurengenbenrenwu,yixinsizhengguanyinlinggaige,goujianyitihuayurentixi,datongyuren“zuihouyigongli”,zhelixingchengquanyuanquanguochengquanfangweiyurenxingeju。

一、习近平总书记亚搏app立德树人重要论述,是推进“三全育人”综合改革的根本遵循

1.习近平总书记亚搏app立德树人重要论述为“三全育人”指明了方向

zai“peiyangshenmeren,weisheipeiyangren”dewentishang,gujinzhongwai,suoyouguojiadouyouzijidezhengzhishuxing,douhuianzijiyaoqiulaipeiyangrencai。xijinpingzongshujizaiquanguogaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuohuiyishangqiangdiao,gaoxiaolishenzhibenzaiyulideshuren。zhiyoupeiyangchuyiliurencaidegaoxiao,cainenggouchengweishijieyiliudaxue。womendegaoxiaoshidanglingdaoxiadegaoxiao,shizhongguoteseshehuizhuyigaoxiao,zheijiujuedinglegaoxiaobixujianchiweidangyuren、weiguoyucaideshiming,jianchibagaodengjiaoyufazhanfangxiangtongwoguoxianshimubiaoheweilaifangxiangjinmilianxizaiyiqi,weirenminfuwu,weizhongguogongchandangzhiguolizhengfuwu,weigongguhefazhanzhongguoteseshehuizhuyizhidufuwu,weigaigekaifangheshehuizhuyixiandaihuajianshefuwu。“sanquanyuren”zonghegaige,benzhishijiaqiangdangdequanmianlingdao,baxiaoneixiaowaiziyuanzhengheqilai,bayiqieyurenyuansuliyongqilai,yindaoxueshengjiandinglixiangxinnian,houzhiaiguoqinghuai,lizhiyuzhonghuaminzuqianqiuweiye,peiyangshehuizhuyijianshezhehejiebanren,peiyangyidaiyouyidaiyonghuzhongguogongchandanglingdaohewoguoshehuizhuyizhidu、lizhiweizhongguoteseshehuizhuyishiyefendouzhongshengdeyouyongrencai。

2.习近平总书记亚搏app立德树人的重要论述为“三全育人”提供了实践遵循

yishitichugaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuo“sanyin”“sanguilv”“sanbanfa”: yaoyinshierhua、yinshierjin、yinshierxin。yaozunxunsixiangzhengzhigongzuoguilv、jiaoshuyurenguilv、xueshengchengzhangguilv;yaoyanyonghaobanfa,gaijinlaobanfa,tansuoxinbanfa,buduantigaogongzuonengliheshuiping。ershichuangzaoxingtichusixiangzhengzhigongzuotixideguantonggongneng。tichule“yaobasixiangzhengzhigongzuoguanchuanjiaoyujiaoxuequanguocheng,shixianquanchengyuren,quanfangweiyuren”dezongtiyaoqiu,bingzhichu“rencaipeiyangtixishejixueketixi、jiaoxuetixi、jiaocaitixi、guanlitixideng,erguantongqizhongdeshisixiangzhengzhigongzuotixi。”sanshidui“sanquanyuren”moshijutihua。zaiquanguojiaoyudahuishang,zongshujiqiangdiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuozheyaoshanyuyunyongyiqiechanghe、yiqiezaiti、yiqiefangshilaizuosixiangzhengzhigongzuo,bingnengdaidongsuoyoujiaozhiyuangonghexueshenggongtonglaizuosixiangzhengzhigongzuo。tashuo,sixiangzhengzhigongzuojuebushidanchunyitiaoxiandegongzuo,eryinggaishiquanfangwei,wuchubuzai、wushibuzaide,rongrushi、qianrushi、shenrushide,bunenggaochengliangzhangpi。zaixuexiaosixiangzhengzhililunkejiaoshizuotanhuijianghuazhong,zongshujiyouzhichu,yaowanshankechengtixi,jiejuehaogeleikechenghesizhengkexianghupeihedewenti,jiejuehaotuidongqitajiaozhiyuangonghesizhengkejiaoshixiangfuxiangchengdewenti,tuidongsixiangzhengzhigongzuoguantongrencaipeiyangtixi,fahuirongrushi、qianrushi、shentoushidelideshurenxietongxiaoying。yigeshiqilai,bansuizhesixiangzhengzhigongzuodekexuehua、guifanhuahezhuanyehua,gaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuozhuanmenliliangdedaolechongfenfazhan,danyezaochenglegaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuobumenhuadewenti,babenlaiyinggaizuoweixuexiaohexinrenwudelideshurenderenwu,fengechenggegezhuanmenbumen“dandagu”“duhuachuan”,biaoxianweizhutibuxietong、guochengyouduandian、fugaiyoumangqu,zaochengleyurenbupinghengbuchongfendejumian。xijinpingzongshujizhongyaolunshuweipojiesixiangzhengzhigongzuobupinghengbuchongfenwenti,tuijin“sanquanyuren”zonghegaige,xingcheng“sanquanyuren”gongzuoxingeju,quebaowanchenglideshurengenbenrenwutigonglelilunjichuheshijianzunxun。

二、对标“三全”,推进“三全育人”走实走新

tuijin“sanquanyuren”zonghegaige,yaoyixijinpingzongshujizhongyaolunshuweizhidao,yiwentiweidaoxiang,zengjin“sanquanyuren”gongshi,duibiao“sanquan”deyaoqiu,goujian“sanquanyuren”geju,buduantigaogaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuodeshuipinghezhiliang。

1.对标“全员”要求,主体协同实,实现育人“无不尽责”

“quanyuan”qiangdiaodeshiyurendezhutixing。pojiesizhengjiaoyu“gudaohua”dejiongjing,yaoshixianquanyuanzaidangzhihuixiade“dahechang”,gesiqizhi,gefuqize,hechangchu“lideshuren”haoshengyin。yishizhuanmenliliangsixiangzhengzhigongzuozoushenzoushi,shixianyurenzhuzeyuyinlingshifanjiehe。zhuanmenliliangshisixiangzhengzhigongzuogugan,zhuyaobaokuosizhengkejiaoshi、fudaoyuan、xinlijiankangjiaoyujiaoshihedangwugongzuoduiwudeng。sizhengkejiaoshiyaojujiaoquanmiantuidongxijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyisixiangjinjiaocai、jinketang、jinxueshengtounao,an“bagexiangtongyi”he“liugeyao”deyaoqiu,tuijinsizhengkeshouzhengchuangxin,zhuzhongzhishichuanshouhejiazhiyinlinggaoduronghe,yindaoxueshengshulizhengquedeshijieguan、renshengguan、jiazhiguan。fudaoyuan、xinlijiankangjiaoyujiaoshihedangwugongzuoduiwudengshilideshurendezhuyaoyikaoliliang。yaonulichengweixianjinsixiangwenhuadechuanbozhe、dangzhizhengdejiandingzhichizhe,genghaodidanqixueshengjiankangchengzhangzhidaozheheyinlurendezeren。zhuanmenliliangbujinyaochuangzaoxingzuohaogongzuo,shisixiangzhengzhigongzuobawoguilvxing、tixianshidaixinghefuyouchuangzaoxing,erqieyaofahuiyinlingzuoyong,daidong、tuidongqitaliliangchuangzaoxingzuohaosixiangzhengzhigongzuo,xingchengyurenheli。ershizhuanrenjiaoshiduiwukechengsizhengzoushenzoushi,shixian“jiaoshu”yu“yuren”ronghe。zhuanrenjiaoshishizhigonggongjichuke、zhuanyejiaoyukeheshijianleikejiaoshi,yuezhanjiaoshiduiwu80%,chengdanzhe80%dekecheng,shikechengsizhengdezhulijun。yaozhenduijiaoshubuyuren、shangkebuguanke、kehoubulishidexianxiang,qianghuakechengsizhengyishi,kexueshejikechengsizhengjiaoxuetixi,jiehezhuanyetedianfenleituijinkechengsizhengjianshe。zhudongwajuekechengsuoyunhandesixiangzhengzhijiaoyuyuansuhesuochengzaidesixiangzhengzhijiaoyugongneng,zijueweiraozhengzhirentong、jiaguoqinghuai、wenhuasuyang、xianfafazhiyishi、daodexiuyangdengzhongdianyouhuakechengsizhengneironggongji,basizhengzhiyanrongrujiaoyuzhitang。sanshiguanlifuwurenyuanyurenzhizeluoshi,shixian“guanlifuwu”yu“yuren”deqihe。zaizhidingguizhangzhidu、shishiyouxiaoguanlideguochengzhong,bixucongyurenzheyan,mingquegangweiyurenzhize,jiyoumubiaoguanli,yeyouguochengguanli,tongshihaiyouxingweiyaoqiu,fuguanliyijiaoyudegongneng,shixianguanlizainali,jiaoyugenjinnali。fuwugangweiyaojiangyurenyuansunarufuwushouze,guifanfuwuxingwei,runwuwusheng,shixueshengzaijieshoufuwudeguochengzhongjieshoujiaoyu。

2.duibiao“quanguocheng”yaoqiu,guochengguantongshi,shixianyuren“wushibuyou”

“quanguocheng”qiangdiaodeshiyurendeshijianguidingxing。yaodatongdudian、lianjieduandian,zunxun“sanda”guilv,jianlizhangshijian、kechixu、guanchuanshiyurenliantiao。yishiyurengongzuoyaoguantongdaxueshengzaixiaoxuexiquanguocheng。yaoshizhongweiraoxuesheng、guanzhaoxuesheng、fuwuxuesheng,jianchifenleizhidao,shixuexiaogeleiziyuanshiyingxueshengcongruxiaodaobiye、congmeigexueqikaixuedaojieshu、congshuangxiuridaohanshujiadebutongjieduandexuyao。jianchigongxingyugexingxiangtongyi,helishezhibutongzhuanye、butongjieduandeyurenneirongheyurenzhongdian,zhelikaizhanxinshengruxuejiaoyu、chengzhangchengcaijiaoyu、biyejiaoyu,tuozhansixiangzhengzhigongzuodeshijianlian。ershiyurengongzuoyaoguantongrencaipeiyangquanguocheng。luoshilideshurengenbenrenwu,bixuchongfenzhulaokechengjianshe“zhuzhanchang”,zai“shuangwan”jihua、“jinke”jihuaherencaipeiyangfanganzhidingyuzhixingzhong,jiangjiazhisuzao、zhishichuanshouhenenglipeiyangsanzherongweiyiti。yujiazhiguanyindaoyuzhishichuanshouhenenglipeiyangzhizhong,jiangxueshengzhengquedeshijieguan、renshengguan、jiazhiguansuzaoguantongyurencaipeiyangquanguocheng。sanshiyurengongzuoyaoguantongjiaoyujiaoxuequanguocheng。guanjianshishouhaoketangjiaoxue“zhuqudao”,jiaoshiyaoweiraolideshurenlaijiao,xueshengyaoweiraolideshurenlaixue,quebaoyurentixianzaikechengmubiaosheji、jiaoxuedagangxiuding、jiaocaibianshenxuanyong、jiaoankejianbianxiegefangmian,guanchuanyuketangshouke、jiaoxueyantao、shiyanshixun、zuoyelunwen、kaoshidenggehuanjie,shixianquanguochengyurenxiaoguozuidahua。

3.“全方位”要求,空间覆盖实,实现育人“无处不在”

“quanfangwei”qiangdiaodeshiyurendekongjianguidingxing。zhenduiyurenfugaiyoumangqu,bixujujiaoquanmianfazhan,zhengheziyuan,jiangyurenfugaidaoxueshengchengzhangchengcaidegefangmian。yiyaobuqiduanban,shixian“wuyuronghe”。jianchideyuweixian,zuoqiangzhiyudetongshi,buqitiyu、meiyu、laodongjiaoyuduanban,goujian“wuyuronghe”rencaipeiyanggongzuotixi。bangzhuxueshengzaitiyuduanlianzhongxiangshoulequ、zengqiangtizhi、jianquanrenge、chuilianyizhi。zaimeiyujiaoxuezhongtishengshenmeisuyang、taoyeqingcao、wenrunxinling。zailaodongjiaoyuzhongzengqianglaodongyishi,hanyangfendoujingshen,shizhijiankufendou。eryaojianhao“sangeketang”,shixianquanmianfugai。zhuahaoketangjiaoxue“diyiketang”。lizhiqizhuangbanhaosixiangzhengzhililunke,shenrutuijinsizhengkesiluchuangyou、shizichuangyou、jiaocaichuangyou、jiaofachuangyou、jizhichuangyou、huanjingchuangyou,zhongdiantuiguangxijinpingzongshujidianzande“yidong”sizhengke,yongdangdechuangxinlilunhehunanzheipianhongseretuzhuhunyuren。tuijingaoxiaokechengsizhengjianshe,shenduwajuegexuekemenleizhuanyekechengyunhandesixiangzhengzhijiaoyuyuansu,fahuisuoyoukechengyurengongneng,goujianquanmianfugai、leixingfengfu、cengcidijin、xianghuzhichengdekechengtixi,shigeleikechengyusizhengkechengtongxiangtongxing,xingchengxietongxiaoying。dazaoshehuishijian“dierketang”。tuidongzhuanyekeshijianjiaoxue、shehuishijianhuodong、chuangxinchuangyejiaoyu、zhiyuanfuwu、junshixunliandengzaitiyoujironghe,xingchengshijianyurentongchoutuijingongzuogeju。jiang“duwanjuanshu”yu“xingwanlilu”jieheqilai,shixianzhiyuxingdetongyi。yonghuowangluo“disanketang”。chongfenfahuishengjigaoxiaowangluosizhengzhongxinheyibanzhongxintongchouzuoyong,jiaqianggaoxiaowangluoyurenziyuangongjiangongxiang。yituomenhuwangzhan、“liangweiyiduan”dengxianshangpingtai,shixianmeitironghe,jianqiangsizhengmeitijuzhen。fengfuwangluoneirong,kaizhanwangluowenhuajianshehuodong,tongguofa“xiao”shengyinjiangshu“da”gushi,yong“weihulian”chengjiu“dasizheng”,tansuoshishimianxiangdaxueshengdewangluosizhengdaketang,tuijinxiandaixinxijishuyujiaoyujiaoxueshenduronghe,shixiankeneikewai、xianshangxianxia、xiaoneixiaowaiquanfangweifugaiyuren。sanyaoyonghao“sanzhongmoshi”,yurenyuwuxingzhizhong。“rongrushi、qianrushi、shenrushi”moshishizhuanmenhua、zhuanyehuahezhuanjiahuagaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuomoshideyizhongxintixian。“sanquanyuren”yaoyinshierhua、yinshierjin、yinshierxin,bixugoujian“rongrushi、qianrushi、shenrushi”moshi。basixiangzhengzhigongzuoyoujirongrudaoxueketixi、jiaoxuetixi、jiaocaitixi、guanlitixi,xingchengyurenxietongchang;rongrushehuishijian、shetuanhuodong、xiaoyuanwenhuahewangluowenhua,xingchengtongpingongzhen。

三、统筹“三抓”,推动“三全育人”常态长效

tuijin“sanquanyuren”zonghegaige,bixujianchixiaoguodaoxiang,tongchouzhuahaoshidiangaige、pingtaixiangmu、jixiaopingjia,goujianchangtaizhangxiaojizhi。

1.试点改革,带动全面跟进

yi“sanquanyuren”zonghegaigeshidianshengjiansheweiyinling,zheliqudong“sanquanyuren”zonghegaigeshidiangaoxiaoheyuan(xi)jiaqianggaigechuangxin、shifanyinling。tongguoshidiangaige,quanmiangoujianyitihuayurentixi,anzhaomubiaodaoxiang、wentidaoxiang、xiaoguodaoxiangdeyaoqiu,dui“sanquanyuren”deguanjianwentihezhongdiannandianwentijinxingyanjiu,tuidonglilunyanjiujinyibushenru。mingque“shidayuren”tixideneihan、yaosuhelujing,zhelidatongsixiangzhengzhigongzuocunzaidemangquheduandian,qianghuayoushi、buqiduanban,tuiguanggaoxiao“shidayuren”shifananli,quebao“shidayuren”tixijinyibuzoushi。yaoyi“sanquanyuren”zonghegaigeshidianweiqiji,wanshangexiangguizhangzhiduheyunxingjizhi,shixianyurenzhuticong“dan”zhuanxiang“quan”,yurenguochengcong“fen”zhuanxiang“he”,yurenkongjiancong“dian”zhuanxiang“ti”,xingchengquanyuanquanguochengquanfangweiyurenxingeju,cushi“sanquanyuren”jizhimoshijinyibudingxing。

2.平台项目,提升育人质量

dajiangongzuopingtai,weirao“shidayuren”tixihe《jiaoyubudengbabumenyaboappjiakuaigoujiangaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuotixideyijian》suohangaideqidatixi,congshishengsizhenggongzuo、sizhengkechengjianshe、kechengsizhengjianshe、sizhenggongzuoduiwujianshedengfangmianzheshou,yitihuagoujianlilunyushijianxiangjiehedegaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuochuangxinfazhanzhongxin、sixiangzhengzhililunjiaoyuchuangxinpingtai、sixiangzhengzhigongzuoduiwupeixunyanxiuzhongxin、sixiangzhengzhigongzuopingjiayanjiuzhongxindenggongzuopingtai,qieshijiang“shidayuren”luoshidaoxuexiaogongzuodegegehuanjie。chuangxinxiangmujianshe,gulihezhichigaoxiaochongfenwajuegexianggongzuoyunhandeyurenyuansuheyurenluoji,anzhaochujingpin、keshifan、youtesedeyuanze,weirao“sanquanyuren”,helifenbu、dalipeiyufenleizhidaosixiangzhengzhigongzuojingpinxiangmu、gongzuoyanjiuxiangmu、zhongdagongguanxiangmuheguganduiwujianshexiangmu,caiqulixiangpeiyuhechengguorendingxiangjiehedengfangshi,tansuochuangxinlilunyanjiuheshijiangongzuomoshi,jianlijianquantesechengzhangfudaoshi、zhuloudaoshi、shuyuanyuren、“yizhanshi”xueshengshequxietongyurendengyurenchuangxinjizhi。tongguozuoqiangpingtai、zuoshixiangmu、zuoyoujizhi,xingchengjuyoukeshifan、keyinling、kefushe、ketuiguang、kechixuyiyidexianjinjingyanhedianxingzuofa,tuidongxingcheng“yixiaoyipin”huo“yixiaoshupin”,tuichuyipijiaoxuemingshi,dazaoyipijingpinkecheng,jianchengyipishijianjidi,qieshituidonggaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuozhiliangquanmiantisheng。

3.绩效评价,落实“硬约束”

quanmianluoshi《shenhuaxinshidaijiaoyupingjiagaigezongtifangan》,xitongshuliwoshengyouguangaoxiaosixiangzhengzhigongzuodepingjiacuoshi,shenhuapingjiagaige,yixietongyurenchuangxingongxianweidaoxiang,jianlijiliyuyueshubingzhong、duoyuanduoceng、kexueyouxiaodepingjiazhibiaotixi,bagaoxiao“sanquanyuren”gongzuozuowei“shuangyiliu”jianshejianceyuchengxiaopingjia、xuekepinggu、benkejiaoxuepinggu、“shuangwan”jihua、zhuanyerenzheng、“shuanggaojihua”pingjia、rencaixiangmupingshenpingbidezhongyaozhibiao,bingnarugaoxiaozhengzhixunshixuncha、xiangmuzijinfenpei、lingdaobanzikaohedezhongyaoneirong。gaoxiaoyaobaluoshi“sanquanyuren”gongzuozuoweierjixueyuanhezhinengbumendeniandumubiaoguanlikaohezhongyaoneirongzhiyi,bingqieyuxueyuan、bumenjixiaoguagou,dingqitongbaogongzuokaizhanqingkuang,jishizongjiebingjijituiguanghaozuofa、haojingyan。wanshanganbuhejiaoshipingjiakaohebanfa,jiang“sanquanyuren”nenglihexiaoguozuoweixuexiaolingdaoganbushuzhipingyi,zhuanrenjiaoshiyijizhinengbumengongzuorenyuandenianzhongkaohe、zhichengpingpin、jinshengjinzhi、pingyoujiangli、jixiaokaohedezhongyaozhibiao,shiyurende“ruanzhibiao”bianwei“yingyueshu”。

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